Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a serious global healthcare challenge with changing epidemiology and increasing morbidity and mortality from the complications of liver cirrhosis and hepatoma (HCC). hepatitis B viral infection are often broadly categorized into four disease phases: (1) hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic infection; (2) HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis; (3) HBeAg-negative chronic infection; and (4) HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis.
After hepatitis B surface antigen loss, patients don’t require any specific follow-up but they carry a risk of reactivation within the event of immunosuppression. the first treatment goal in CHB is to enhance survival and quality of life by preventing disease progression and therefore the development of HCC. Current treatment regimens are non-curative and, once initiated, treatment is typically of indefinite duration.
Treatment decisions are made on the idea of disease assessment and risk stratification. All CHB patients, including those on treatment, should be monitored for disease progression and HCC development. hepatitis B virus/D virus co-infection represents the foremost severe sort of chronic hepatitis due to more rapid disease progression and increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC; thus it requires special consideration. within the present review, we summarize the guidance on hepatitis B and D diagnosis and treatment.